Middle- and lower-income countries now have a higher rate of hypertension than high-income countries. Worldwide, the prevalence of hypertension is at a record high, according to a new study in the journal Circulation.
From 2000 to 2010, the rate of hypertension in middle- and lower-income countries increased by nearly eight percentage points. For higher-income countries in that same time period, it decreased by nearly three percentage points.
‘If you look over the past 10 years, the number of hypertensive people has decreased in higher-income countries, but it’s higher in lower-income countries,’ said Jiang He of Tulane University School of Public Health, a leader of the study.
He and his team combed through studies published from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2014. The studies they analysed addressed sex- and age-specific rates of high blood pressure, and they grouped countries using a World Bank classification system.
The researchers estimated that 1.39 billion adults across the globe had high blood pressure in 2010 compared with 921 million in 2000. The prevalence of hypertension in high-income countries dropped from 31.1% in 2000 to 28.5% in 2010, while the prevalence increased over that time from 23.8 to to 31.5% in middle and low-income countries.
The study found that the East Asia and Pacific region had the highest rate and increase in adults with hypertension: Nearly 439 million people there have hypertension.
The South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa regions also had a significant uptick in high blood pressure prevalence, with 114 million more people and 78 million more people respectively living with hypertension in 2010 than in 2000.
Changes in urbanisation and diet are likely explanations for why hypertension is now an issue in middle- and lower-income countries, according to the study.
‘People who live in the countryside engage in the farmer lifestyle and have manual labour,’ He said. ‘When they move to the city, they get office jobs and stress.’
The study also found that there were disparities between middle- and lower-income countries and high-income countries when it came to hypertension awareness and treatment.
Only 38% of people in middle- and lower-income countries were aware of their high blood pressure status compared with 67% of people in high-income countries. Moreover, 56% of high-income residents were likely to receive treatment compared with 29% in middle- and lower-income countries.
Samira Asma is the chief of the Global Non-Communicable Diseases Branch in the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Global Health Protection. She said that the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that nearly one-third of all deaths in the world will be caused by cardiovascular diseases, which is about 25 million deaths per year. ‘Eight out of 10 of those deaths will be for low-to-middle-income countries,’ she said.
Asma said that hypertension has declined in high-income countries because of lifestyle changes and more information about what is in food. Asma and He of Tulane agree that national and international stakeholders should collaborate to find ways to combat hypertension.
Mpower, a WHO effort to decrease tobacco use, is an example of how even middle- and lower-income countries can decrease the rate of hypertension, Asma said. Bans on tobacco advertising have decreased tobacco consumption, according to the WHO.
Asma said similar methods can be implemented globally to reduce the rate of hypertension, which she said prematurely ages the heart by up to seven years.
‘We should not let any patient go undiagnosed and untreated,’ Asma said. She called for ‘putting in an effective system where people have access to medication and can receive treatment and can be deployed in lower-income countries.’